Panel 7: Translation and Application Issues in Relation to Deep Vein Thrombosis
Joseph A Caprini, M.D.
- Prevent Fatal pulmonary emboli.
- 1-5% incidence in patients with >4 risk factors.
- 16.7% mortality at 3 months.
- 25% of those with Pulmonary emboli present as sudden death.
- Prevent chronic pulmonary hypertension
- 4% of patients suffering PE
- Prevent clinical venous thromboembolism.
- Morbidity, drugs, tests, hose, changes in life style.
- Prevent silent venous thromboembolism.
- Risk of subsequent event double that of control population.
- Prevent embolic stroke (20-30% PFO rate).
- 50% disabled; 20% die; 30% recover.
- Prevent the post thrombotic syndrome.
- 25% incidence following DVT and 7% severe.
- May not be evident for 2-5 YEARS>
Image of a woman with post thrombotic syndrome
Total Risk Factor Score
Incidence of DVT
No specific measures; early and aggressive ambulation
|GCS: Graduated compression stockings |
IPC: Intermittent pneumatic compression LDUH: Low-dose unfractionated heparin
LMWH: Low molecular weight heparin
Factor Xa - Factor X Inhibitor
LDUH (q12h), LMWH
LDUH (q8h), LMWH
5 or more
LMWH (>3400 U daily),* warfarin (INR, 2-3),* or Factor Xa* ortho, or IPC/GCS + LDUH/LMWH
patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), please refer to the
manufacturer’s product information for dose adjustment.
- Prospective validation of the entire risk assessment tool is one avenue to translate data from the literature into routine clinical practice.
- A number of individual correlations between risk or in the incidence of venous thromboembolism have been observed but until the instrument is prospectively validated some clinicians are unwilling to spend the time in effort to record and track these data elements.
- We have developed a protocol to validate this instrument which is widely used as part of the AVF venous screening program, hospitals participating in DVT awareness month, and several hundred university and community settings in the US and as far away as the middle east.
- Incidence of VTE in those with very high risk scores
- Is there a level of risk where elective quality-of-life surgical procedures should not be done.
- Guidelines for outpatient prophylaxis in those not admitted to hospital Data to show that shortening the length of standard prophylaxis is justified just because the patient is discharged before 5-7 days.*
- Detailed guidelines regarding the prevention and treatment of the post-thrombotic syndrome.
- For most clinicians compression therapy equals antiembolism stockings.
- Treatment of calf vein thrombosis
- Observation and serial scanning has resulted in some deaths
- Treatment has not been associated with mortality
- The anticancer effects of LMWH
- What drug? what dose?, how long?
- Doesn't the level of risk rather than the type of procedure dictate the use of prophylaxis
- Integrating the choice of drug, onset of prophylaxis, duration of prophylaxis, and intensity of prophylaxis according to available evidence.
- Separate editorial statements from the evidence based data.
- "we place a relatively low value on the prevention of venographic thrombosis, and a relatively high value on minimizing bleeding complications".
- Some of us feel that the identification of those patients likely to develop venous thrombosis may prevent not only some sudden deaths, but also some cases of disabling stroke and most importantly help prevent the post thrombotic syndrome.
- bleeding rarely results in death and in the prospective randomized trials almost never leads to a serious disabling result due to joint removal for infection secondary to bleeding.
- CME and didactic programs have little impact on changing behavior!
- Effective strategies include
- reminder systems
- standing orders
- clinical pathways or protocols
- opinion leaders and physician champions
- self-monitoring and feedback
- Public awareness of DVT
- National implementation of the American Venous Forum screening program in as many communities in the US as possible.
- Increase physician awareness by having the patients present selected educational materials along with their report card to their local physician.
- Encourage the patients to get a DVT expert on the AVF website in order to interpret their report card. Partner with the coalition for DVT, National Alliance for Thrombosis and Thrombophilia, and other interested organizations.
- Representatives help with screening and distribute brochures explaining those organizations at the screening sites.
- Media blitz
- Each month run a feature story on a thrombosis victim in a national news venueóparade magazine, people magazine, usa today, wall street journal, etc.
- Inundate the press with human interest stories regarding VTE.
- Physician awareness of DVT
- Mandate guidelines developed by the NQF, Leapfrog, SCIP project, and the joint commission.
- Performance measures linked to joint commission accreditation and PAY FOR PERFORMANCE
- No prophylaxis—no pay!!!
- Electronic medical record used to facilitate the process and include DVT alerts, and pathway type protocols
- Track outcomes with 90 day follow-up data and self adjust pathway decisions regarding prophylaxis based on this data.